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Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)

What is Carbon Capture and Storage?

Carbon capture and storage (CCS), also known as carbon capture and sequestration or carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS), is the process of capturing waste carbon dioxide (CO2) and depositing it in an underground geologic formation for long-term CO2 storage. The aim of CCS is to prevent the release of CO2 into the earth’s atmosphere as a means of mitigating the contribution of carbon dioxide emissions to global warming and ocean acidification. A key component of a successful CCS project is ensuring that there is no leakage of CO2 from the subsurface geologic formation selected for storage. 

CCS, Pre-Injection Site Evaluation: 

P-Cable UHR3D seismic data acquired with high-frequency sources such as sparker or boomer offers unrivaled marine seismic imaging of subsurface hazards for engineering-scale studies and infrastructure safety and represents a step-change in geohazard evaluation. Broadband 3D imaging of the subsurface ensures the accurate delineation of subsurface hazards from water-bottom down to a few hundred meters or more below seabed with unprecedented resolution and image quality. P-Cable UHR3D data, in combination with ancillary measurements such as multibeam echo sounder, side-scan sonar, sub-bottom profiler, and magnetic gradiometer, provides an unrivaled ability to image: 

  • Seafloor bathymetry at a level of detail comparable to shipborne multibeam echo sounder data 

  • Seafloor and sub-seafloor infrastructure 

  • Small scale faults and diffractors, including steeply dipping fault planes 

  • Extremely detailed seismic-stratigraphic information from the seabed to several hundred meters below seabed, including thin beds and pinch outs 

  • Free gas in the subsurface, including gas chimneys, gas clouds, trapped free gas, and active gas expulsion features 

  • Gas hydrates, both indirectly using free gas underneath the hydrates (BSR's), and possibly directly in favorable circumstances using detailed amplitude analysis

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4D (Time-Lapse) Reservoir Monitoring

Time-lapse (4D) marine seismic imaging surveys and time-lapse seismic processing are important for the monitoring and analysis of sub-surface deformation and fluid migration both for the offshore E&P industry and for academic applications. Time-lapse P-Cable data have been collected in areas with gas hydrates and focused fluid flow, as well as over-producing deep-water oilfields, and have proven very useful for detecting subsurface changes over time and for reservoir monitoring and management. 

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CCS: Carbon Capture and Storage

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Sequestration of CO2 requires detailed knowledge of the structure and properties of the target geological formation and the regional seal. OFG’s technology can be deployed to characterize storage reservoir properties; image small scale faults that may compromise seal integrity; identify potential gas migration paths; and monitor CO2 gas leakage. 

Site Surveys and Geohazards

Marine environments represent engineering challenges, introducing risks and uncertainties. Ultrahigh Resolution (UHR) 3D seismic imaging is essential for accurate mapping of shallow gas, weak layers, faults, and other potential subsurface geological hazards that impact offshore industry activities such as drilling operations; platforms, and offshore wind farm construction; and pipeline surveys. 

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Jon Nicholls
VP Global Operations, OFG Multiphysics

Jon Nicholls
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