University of Tasmania AUV Delivered with OFG Magnetometer

The OFG Self-Compensating Magnetometer (SCm) system delivered with the new ISE Explorer AUV "nupiri muka" will help researchers understand more about the geology of Antartica and the Southern Ocean. (

The SCM system compensates for the the internal magnetic field of the AUV so that the ambient magnetic field is recorded which is typically overwhelmed by the internal magnetic field of the AUV. (



Dr. Brian Claus adds to OFG AUV expertise

OFG is happy to welcome Dr. Brian Claus to the OFG team.  His expertise in AUV systems complements OFG's significant AUV capabilities. 

Dr. Brian Claus has most recently been a post-doctoral scholar at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI) where he investigated cooperative acoustic navigation methods using IVER autonomous underwater vehicles with low grade odometry. Also at WHOI, Dr. Claus validated a magnetic sensing methodology for use on an autonomous underwater glider and investigated methods for extending the operational region of long duration underwater platforms to below 1000 meters. His Doctoral work at Memorial University in Newfoundland, Canada, was on energy efficient navigational methods for long range underwater vehicles in surface denied regions for which he received his Ph.D in 2015.  He has worked extensively with underwater gliders, including the design of an auxiliary glider propulsion system which is often called a Hybrid Glider which was the subject of his Masters Thesis. Dr. Claus completed his Masters degree in Engineering from Memorial University in 2010 and an Electrical Engineering degree from the University of Victoria in 2008.

OFG presenting at the Underwater Intervention 2017 conference

Donizeti Carneiro, PhD., Business Development Manager will be presenting a paper "Geophysical Methods from Exploration for Pipeline Inspection" at the Underwater Intervention 2017 conference in New Orleans (February 21 - 23, Morial Convention Center Hall B1, New Orleans, LA, USA). Learn how OFG electromagnetic technologies developed and deployed by AUV can be applied for the non-contact inspection of subsea pipelines. Applications in cathodic protection (CP) inspection as well as the detection of invisible flaws such as cracking, fractures, erosion and corrosion through the use of technologies proven in the arena of subsea minerals exploration will be discussed. 

Oceanology International North America 2017: OFG to present Self-Compensating Magnetometer (SCM) results from Remus 600 AUV

The Self-Compensating Magnetometer (SCM) System – Test Results from a Remus 600 AUV Survey in Yellowstone Lake

Panel Session: Unmanned Vehicles and Vessels - Innovations in Autonomy

Location: Conference Room 26B

Date and Time: Wednesday Feb 15th from 16:00 - 17:30

In 2016, Ocean Floor Geophysics (OFG) released a new Self-Compensating Magnetometer (SCM) system to the subsea industry.  This magnetometer was designed specifically for use in autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) and some remotely-operated underwater vehicles (ROVs).  Using data collected during a calibration maneuver, correction coefficients are calculated for the magnetization of the AUV itself, its attitude in the Earth’s magnetic field, and for variable electro-magnetic effects related to the power drawn by the vehicle’s propulsion and maneuvering system.  This compensation algorithm eliminates the need to tow the magnetometer or degauss the vehicle to collect useful magnetic data.

Collecting data with a magnetometer mounted inside or on an underwater vehicle enables the production of much higher resolution magnetic maps than those produced using a surface vessel.  Using the SCM, magnetic data can be collected concurrently with high resolution multibeam, side scan, and/or sub-bottom data enabling the interpretation of geology on a local scale instead of a regional one.

As part of product testing, OFG has deployed the SCM on vehicles by various AUV manufacturers. We discuss here the data from a magnetometer deployed on Remus 600 AUV doing a multibeam mapping project in Yellowstone Lake.  Magnetic data was collected over four dives and compensation was applied to the raw data using the SCM algorithm. Maps were generated and compared with historical magnetic data collected using airborne techniques.  The comparison shows that the data collected using the OFG SCM is consistent with the airborne results but provides significantly more detail, revealing features that were not visible in the airborne data.  These local features can provide useful and detailed geological data that compliments the precision bathymetry collected by the AUV.

OFG supplies Self-Compensating Magnetometer (SCM) system for NTNU research

An OFG SCM was deployed on the Hugin AUV used by NTNU in their summer 2016 MarMine seafloor massive sulphide (SMS) research project. We look forward to continued collaboration on subsea magnetic and electromagnetic systems in support of the NTNU MarMine project for seafloor minerals exploration and research. For further information on the NTNU MarMine project please visit their site For further information on the OFG SCM for AUVS and ROVs, please visit

OFG Expands AUV Capability

HiSAS-equipped survey and pipeline inspection Hugin AUV Chercheur added to OFG fleet

Burnaby, BC, Canada - October, 2016

Building on OFG’s strengths in deep water Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) operations and support services, OFG has invested in a 3000m-rated Hugin AUV. The AUV Chercheur is equipped with an unsurpassed sensor and software suite for extremely efficient inspection of pipelines and infrastructure, pipeline route studies, site geohazard surveys, environmental monitoring surveys, and other seafloor-based applications such as UXO, archeology, salvage, and minerals exploration. 

Chercheur is equipped with state of the art high resolution interferometric synthetic aperture sonar (HiSAS), the latest in technology multibeam echosounder EM2040, a sub-bottom profiler, a comprehensive environmental geochemical sensing suite, a high resolution still photography camera, and an OFG Self-Compensating Magnetometer (SCM) system. Chercheur is the most advanced subsea survey platform, and comes complete with all ancillary sensors to guarantee precision navigation and positioning.

OFG’s CTO Peter Kowalczyk commented, “When considering this investment, we felt that synthetic aperture sonar (SAS) is the technology by which other sonar imagery will be measured in the future and that it was a requirement for any new AUV purchase.  The incredible imagery produced by the HiSAS system confirms this.”

The combination of Chercheur’s technology, OFG’s experienced AUV operations team, and the expertise of our technology and commercial partners extends the possibility to unveil seafloor properties and characteristics to new levels of resolution and detection.      

Included in that extended reach, OFG offers with Chercheur its AUV services for very shallow water operations allowed by the advanced navigation and positioning systems, and the efficient coverage of large areas by the HiSAS system even in shallow water. Detailed camera surveys are also possible in water depths ranging from 10m to 3000m with the EM2040-aided acoustic tracking and following capabilities.

The incredible high resolution imagery produced by the HiSAS system gives offshore oil and gas companies the ability to build and maintain a precise GIS database of the positions and conditions of their seafloor assets, natural features, marine archeology inventories, UXOs and other features of interest such as plumes. Seafloor minerals exploration teams will also benefit greatly with regards to geological interpretation.

OFG looks forward to supporting our clients and commercial and technology partners with the deployment of this portable, self-contained AUV survey and inspection system around the world.

To learn more about OFG’s AUV survey and inspection capabilities or to discuss marine EM and magnetic services and technologies, please contact Matthew Kowalczyk (CEO) or Donizeti Carneiro (Business Development Manager) at +1-778-654-7781, by email at, or visit the website at

 Ocean Floor Geophysics Inc. (OFG) is a marine geophysics company that provides data acquisition and analysis services that were previously unavailable by combining specialised expertise in subsea operations, sensor design, and sensor integration with geophysical technologies beyond the scope of traditional marine geophysical surveys. These include marine magnetics, EM, and CSEM/MT deployed by ROV, AUV, and deep-tow systems. OFG is an advanced user of powerful 2D and 3D EM and magnetic forward modelling and inversion software. This range of technologies and experience allows OFG to support clients from survey design through to data integration and analysis. OFG will provide you with a new perspective on your data and the confidence to make informed decisions for your offshore exploration and development projects. 

UPDATED DATE AND VENUE - You are invited to join OFG at the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro

UPDATED Venue: Departamento de Engenharia Eletrica, Sala L401-1*, PUC - Rio de Janeiro, Brazil   (*Sala Multimeios, Departamento de Engenharia Electrica - Ed. Cardeal Leme, Quarto Andar, PUC)

UPDATED Date: 9am, Wednesday October 26th, 2016

Applications for established deep sea geophysical methods used in mineral exploration for the subsea inspection of pipeline infrastructure

Peter Kowalczyk, Chief Technical Officer, Ocean Floor Geophysics Inc.

As subsea pipeline are placed in deeper and deeper waters and the installed infrastructure ages, the necessity to inspect these pipes efficiently is becoming urgent.    Present methods rely upon visual inspection using remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) and intervention using these same ROVs.  This is costly, and these costs are increasing as inspection requirements become more stringent and the depth of water that the pipelines sit in also increases.

Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) can dramatically lower the cost of routine inspections and allow timely and appropriate intervention.  This strategy of using AUVs to inspect on a regular basis, followed by targeted interventions at problem areas using ROVs will result in lower costs overall, with a higher success ratio at interventions due to the early recognition of problems and an outcome of reduced adverse environmental impacts. The OFG AUV "Chercheur" is an fully equipped survey and pipeline inspection AUV with an unsurpassed suite of sensors including HiSAS (Synthetic Aperture Sonar), EM2040 multibeam echo-sounder, high resolution camera and on-board pipeline tracking software. These systems can be used to map as-built positions, buckling, movement, supports, mat positions, scours and free spans. There exists an opportunity to further extend the capabilities offered by Chercheur for the detection of invisible flaws such as cracking, pipeline erosion and corrosion (internal and external), and fractures through the use of technologies proven in the arena of subsea minerals.

Three technologies have particular application and can be readily adapted to use in AUV pipeline inspections.  These are E-field monitoring of galvanic protection systems, magnetic monitoring of impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems and the measurement of the electromagnetic time decay constant of the pipe itself using a time domain electromagnetic (TEM) system.  (1) E-field monitoring implies measurement of the ambient electric field around a pipe using detection electrodes on an AUV.  The electric gradient in seawater is a measure of the cathodic current flowing from the pipeline, and the activity of active or passive cathodic protection electrodes. Anomalous reading will indicate a failure in the pipeline covering, or wastage of the cathodic electrodes.   (2) Magnetic measurements along the pipeline made with high frequency magnetometers can measure the amplitude of the cathodic protection current in the pipeline for ICCP systems.  If the current along the pipeline changes, this indicates leakage of current from the pipeline to the sea.  A correlating E-field anomaly may be expected at this location.  (3) TEM measurements will require a transmitter on the AUV, and then an appropriate high speed and very sensitive vector magnetometer to measure the secondary field from the induced secondary current in the pipeline caused by the TEM transmitter pulse.  The measurement of the time decay constant (tau) is important as this is a property of the pipe, and is independent of the transmitter and receiver geometry.   A change in tau will indicate a change in the physical condition of the pipe.  In particular, a reduced tau can be expected to correlate with damaged regions of the pipe.

All three methods are used in subsea mineral exploration, and equipment to make these measurements has been developed and is proven to work in the subsea environment.  The technology risk here is small, and the challenge is to demonstrate these technologies from the subsea mineral exploration world in the world of industrial subsea pipeline inspections.


About Peter Kowalczyk, BSc, P. Geo.

Chief Technical Officer, Ocean Floor Geophysics, Vancouver

Peter is a founder of Ocean Floor Geophysics (OFG), a company started in 2007 to provide geophysical services for seafloor exploration for minerals and gas hydrates.  Prior to starting Ocean Floor Geophysics he was chief geophysicist for Placer Dome Inc.  

Following graduation with a BSc degree in geophysics from the University of British Columbia, Peter joined Placer Dome as a project geophysicist in 1970 and worked on geophysical surveys around the world forporphyry copper, uranium, base metal and gold exploration, becoming chief geophysicist in 1992 that role Peter coordinated Placer's geophysical research and was heavily involved in the introduction and implementation of digital processing, visualization and geophysical inversion methods into the exploration practices at Placer Dome. In 2005 and 2006 Peter managed the geophysical component of Placer Dome's leading-edge exploration program for sea bottom massive sulphidesAn exploration generalist, he has particular experience in the processing and interpretation of airborne, ground and marine electromagnetic and electrical survey data. 

Since leaving Placer following its purchase by Barrick Gold and starting OFG in 2007, Peter has been the chief scientific officer managing multiple cruises to explore for and map seafloor massive sulfide deposits, and in particular has directed or carried out a variety of recent marine projects including:

·         Submarine Massive Sulfide (SMS) exploration projects in the South Pacific and around Japan,

·         Very high precision bathymetric mapping using ROVs and AUVs, and

·         Mapping offshore gas hydrate deposits using the Scripps Institute Vulcan CSEM system.

 He is the inventor of the patented Ocean Floor Geophysics submarine electromagnetic system, and has also been part of a team that has developed a magnetometer system that provides automatic and highly accurate heading-compensated data when mounted on AUVs and ROVs that have not been degaussed or specially prepared as magnetometer survey platforms.

Peter has presented and published a wide variety of talks and papers on both land and marine geophysical projects.

Peter has long been involved in pro-bono efforts in the geophysical community in BC, including serving a multi-year stint as President of the BC Geophysical Society.  Strongly committed to supporting and advancing geophysical education, Peter is also a long-serving Director of the KEGS Foundation and has guided fund-raising in the Lower Mainland community in support of the Foundation’s geophysical scholarship program.

Selected talks and publications:

·         Mapping SMS deposits during exploration and exploitation. Using Sonar, Magnetic, Electromagnetic & Seismic methods effectively, EAGE Munster, Mar 2016

·         CSEM for gas hydrate exploration - a new approach using the Scripps Institute of Oceanography CSEM Vulcan system, Gas Hydrate Workshop, Taiwan, Mar 2015

·         Geophysical Methods for the Mapping of Submarine Massive Sulphide Deposits, OTC, May 2015

·         Geophysical prelude to first exploitation of submarine massive sulphides, First Break, Nov 2008

·         Interactive geophysical inversion using qualitative geological constraints, Exploration Geophysics, Jan 2007

·         Theta Map: Edge detection in magnetic data, Geophysics, Jul 2005

·         What if your inversion has no numerical target?, ASEG mtg, Jan 2003

·         3 component borehole magnetometry in and around magnetic orebodies, SEG meeting, Jan 1999

·         3D inversion of resistivity and IP data, two case studies from mineral exploration, SEG meeting, Jan 1999

·          Applications of geophysical inversions in mineral exploration, Leading Edge, Apr 1998

·          Geophysics of the Big Bell gold deposit, Western Australia, ASEG, Jan 1994

OFG to present at Underwater Mining Conference 2016 October 9th-13th

Matthew Kowalczyk, Eng., CEO of Ocean Floor Geophysics will be presenting at UMC 2016 being held in Incheon, Korea from October 9th through 13th, 2016.  

A Self-Compensating Magnetometer (SCM) System for High-Resolution Mapping on AUVs
Matthew Kowalczyk, Ocean Floor Geophysics, Canada

Initial Tests of an AUV-borne Controlled Source Electromagnetic (CSEM) System
Matthew Kowalczyk, Ocean Floor Geophysics, Canada; Scripps Institution of Oceanography and Fukada Salvage and Marine Works Co. Ltd.

More information on the conference can be found at the website


A Self-Compensating Magnetometer (SCM) System for High-Resolution Mapping on AUVs

Ocean Floor Geophysics Inc. 

In June this year OFG released a new Self-Compensating Magnetometer (SCM) system, designed specifically for AUVs, to the subsea industry.  In 2014, Ocean Floor Geophysics developed a method to compensate raw survey magnetic data collected inside an the AUV using data collected during a calibration maneuver prior to the survey. Correction coefficients were calculated from the calibration maneuver data to account for the magnetization of the AUV itself, its motion through the Earth’s magnetic field, and for variable currents related to the AUV’s propulsion and maneuvering. The process was not automatic and required operator supervision at all stages.

This has led to the further development to the only Self-Compensating Magnetometer (SCM) system on the market. The system is a combination subsea magnetometer sensor (up to 6000m rated), a processor/data logger, mechanical calibration procedure, and a proprietary software algorithm that computes a series of correction coefficients and applies them to calculate compensated and corrected magnetic data in real time.

Potential high-resolution mapping applications for this system that require the use of AUVs include geologic mapping, engineering applications for pipeline and cable mapping and tracking, mine countermeasures, mapping of unexploded ordinance (UXO), and archeological applications for mapping ship wrecks. Examples of maps of the compensated magnetic data that were collected on surveys for some of these various applications will be shown.


Initial tests of an AUV-borne controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) system

Ocean Floor Geophysics Inc.

Scripps Institution of Oceanography

Fukada Salvage and Marine Works Co. Ltd.

Controlled source electromagnetic systems (CSEM) are used to map subsurface resistivity structure. In 2014 and 2015, OFG used a towed CSEM system developed by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography to map gas hydrate deposits to depths of several 100 metres below the seafloor. We would like to be able to perform CSEM surveys over submarine massive sulfide (SMS) deposits. However, towing the system at a constant depth in terrain with steep bathymetric gradients, such as in the vicinity of hydrothermal chimneys associated with SMS deposits, would prove difficult. Other difficulties with a towed system include requiring a large ship to deploy and power the system, and long, time consuming, turns for high resolution surveys with tight line spacing because the receivers extend well behind the ship.

A novel approach to overcome these difficulties would be to mount electrodes on an AUV with the transmitter towed in the ocean by a ship or emplaced on the seafloor. It would require a smaller ship to launch an AUV than to launch and power a long source/receiver array, and the AUV is capable of tight turns, saving ship time when little useful data is collected. In addition to deployment considerations, the largest potential benefit is the ability to simultaneously collect high-resolution multibeam, sidescan, subbottom profiler, magnetometer, and chemical sensor data.

The largest uncertainty regarding an AUV-borne CSEM system is whether the signal (of the received electric field) to noise (related to the vehicle propulsion plus payload) ratio is sufficiently high.  OFG, Scripps, and Fukada Salvage and Marine Works Co. Ltd. (Fukada) devised an experiment was to record the ambient electric field noise on CSEM electrodes mounted to an operating AUV graciously provided by Fukada. A series of tests were designed and run to investigate how the ambient noise levels on the electrodes changed with the vehicle operating while (1) turning off the payload devices one by one; (2) varying the heading of the vehicle; and (3) varying the speed of the vehicle. Data were analyzed together by OFG and Scripps and results are presented. As well, EM modelling results using these preliminary test results are presented here to show the sensitivity of the electric field response over typical massive sulfide deposits


New Product Release – AUV Magnetometer System

OFG announces the release of a new Self-Compensating Magnetometer (SCM) system, designed specifically for AUVs, to the subsea industry.

Burnaby, BC, Canada - May, 2016

The magnetic signature of an AUV varies with heading, attitude, motor currents, and changing payload configurations. Magnetic surveys using AUVs have been undertaken with either specially configured degaussed or magnetically reduced AUV’s or tow magnetic sensors.  Both configurations are designed to reduce the magnetic effects of the AUV on the sensor, and require the surveyor to compensate for the effects of heading.  Both of these approaches have significant operational challenges and complications, especially if other sensor payloads are required, or if the vehicle is flying at low altitudes through complex terrain or amongst obstacles.

The OFG SCM is a robust, reliable magnetometer system that provides real-time compensated and corrected 3‑component magnetic data.  The OFG SCM can be installed inside the hull of the AUV or strapped directly to the outside of the AUV body to minimize operational risk and provide compensated 3‑component magnetic data.

The OFG SCM, with its simple integration, opens up possibilities for AUV operators and AUV systems integrators to use the 3-component magnetic data for both in-mission decisions regarding magnetic anomalies (e.g. UXO, pipe and cable tracking, ship signatures, mine countermeasures) and post-mission maps (e.g. archeology, geology, exploration, environmental and geotechnical projects).  This is accomplished without the need for a dedicated magnetic survey AUV or an experienced geophysicist to manually remove all of the magnetic vehicle effects.

The OFG SCM system is a combination of a subsea magnetometer sensor, calibration procedure, and proprietary software algorithm that computes a suite of correction coefficients and applies them to calculate compensated and corrected magnetic data in real-time. The SCM software can run on an existing AUV payload computer or an OFG supplied processor with optional pressure housing. The system is available in both 100m and 6000m depth ratings.

 The CEO of OFG, Matthew Kowalczyk, is extremely encouraged by the reception that the new system has received from AUV manufacturers and users. “We are very proud that we have been able to take the post-processing algorithms and technologies, which we have been providing to our commercial AUV survey customers for years, and transform them into a stand-alone real-time sensor for use in AUVs.  The SCM will be very useful to anyone operating AUVs in scientific, military and commercial spaces. The OFG SCM system can be seamlessly integrated into any existing AUV, and can acquire magnetic data simultaneously with other standard AUV sensors, such as sidescan, multibeam, cameras and water chemistry. People often choose to forgo magnetic data due to the added operational complexities of towed systems, even though it is complementary and extremely useful when acquired in conjunction with other standard subsea survey sensors. There are many magnetometer technologies available; they cover a spectrum from extremely sensitive but difficult to deploy SQUIDs through to Hall Effect sensors that are simple to deploy but not sensitive enough for survey applications. At the risk of belabouring the point, a towed SQUID magnetometer will likely get you the best magnetic data possible, but the operational challenges of keeping a Dewar flask of liquid nitrogen full underwater precludes this as a practical solution! The OFG SCM system fills a gap in the market and turns any AUV into an excellent magnetic survey platform without the need to degauss the AUV, characterise the AUV’s magnetic signature, tow a magnetometer, or engage experts to back out the heading and attitude errors of the vehicle.”

Raw uncorrected magnetic intensity collected on an AUV (left) and same data with the OFG SCM algorithms applied to output corrected magnetic intensity (right)

Raw uncorrected magnetic intensity collected on an AUV (left) and same data with the OFG SCM algorithms applied to output corrected magnetic intensity (right)

To learn more about the OFG SCM system for AUVs, or to discuss other marine EM, magnetic and AUV support and services, contact Matthew Kowalczyk at +1-778-654-7781 or by email at or visit the website at

Ocean Floor Geophysics Inc. (OFG) is a marine geophysics company that provides data acquisition and analysis services that were previously unavailable by combining specialised expertise in subsea operations, sensor design and sensor integration with geophysical technologies beyond the scope of traditional marine geophysical surveys. These include marine magnetics, EM, and CSEM/MT, deployed by ROV, AUV and deep tow systems. OFG is an advanced user of powerful 2-D and 3-D EM and magnetic forward modelling and inversion software. This range of technologies and experience allows OFG to support clients from survey design through to data integration and analysis. OFG will provide you with a new perspective on your survey data and the confidence to make informed decisions for your offshore exploration and development projects. 

OFG Signs Agency Agreement with Salcon Petroleum Services in Malaysia

Ocean Floor Geophysics Inc. (OFG) is pleased to announce the appointment of Salcon Petroleum Services (SPS) as their agent in Malaysia. SPS will provide marketing support in Malaysia for all of the services provided by OFG. SPS’s personnel have extensive technical and sales experience in the Oil & Gas industry, including marine electromagnetics (EM).

Matthew Kowalczyk (CEO, Ocean Floor Geophysics) said, “We are excited to be working with Salcon Petroleum Services. This is an important step in continuing to expand our business in this region to provide marine EM surveys for exploration, appraisal and geotechnical applications to our customers.”

Signing of agency agreement in Salcon Petroleum Services office in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, on April 27, 2016; Matthew Kowalczyk (CEO, OFG) and Thomas Sjoberg (CEO, SPS)

Signing of agency agreement in Salcon Petroleum Services office in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, on April 27, 2016; Matthew Kowalczyk (CEO, OFG) and Thomas Sjoberg (CEO, SPS)

OFG Contact: Matthew Kowalczyk
Tel: +1 778 862 9480

SPS Contact: Thomas Sjoberg
Tel: +603 2714 5001

OFG to present at the EAGE/DGG Workshop on Deep Mineral Exploration

Peter Kowalczyk, CTO of Ocean Floor Geophysics,  will present at the EAGE/DGG workshop in Munster, Germany on March 18, 2016. The presentation titled "Mapping SMS deposits during exploration and exploitation using sonar, magnetic, electromagnetic and seismic methods effectively", draws on the experiences of OFG over the last 9 years in SMS exploration. 

Registration details and the technical programme can be found at  and  respectively. 


Another CSEM Gas Hydrate Survey Completed in Japan

Ocean Floor Geophysics Ltd. (OFG), in cooperation with Fukada Salvage and Marine Works Co. Ltd. (Fukada), has completed another high resolution CSEM survey of near surface gas hydrates using the Scripps Institution of Oceanography Vulcan system for the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) in Japanese waters. Following the successful 3D CSEM survey and inversion models completed in 2014, the 2015 survey comprises over 670 line kilometers of high resolution data collected from the Fukada vessel Shin Nichi Maru. A 3D inversion of the EM data for an area of interest for this year’s survey has been completed. The contract for the 3D inversion of the data for the entire 2015 survey area has also been awarded to OFG and will be completed in November this year. Fukada Salvage and Marine Works acted as prime contractor to AIST.